Marine Scotland Blog
8 – 18 December 2017
Sea-Bird CTD/Carousel, Plankton Nets (ARIES), water filtering equipment
- Test the CTD in the Buchan Deep off Peterhead and test plankton crane and ARIES at an appropriate location before its first use.
- Perform routine hydrographic sampling at stations along the long term monitoring JONSIS section in the northern North Sea (Priority 1).
- Perform routine hydrographic sampling at stations along the long term monitoring Faroe-Shetland Channel section: Nolso-Flugga (Priority 1).
- Conduct combined plankton/hydrographic observations by deploying Aries in the Faroe-Shetland-Channel at selected stations on the Nolso-Flugga lines (Priority 1).
- Take nutrient, chlorophyll, TA/DIC, oxygen samples along all standard lines.
- Perform sampling along the Stonehaven AlterEco section (going west from 2° E) (Priority 1).
- Run the thermosalinograph throughout the survey.
- Perform routine hydrographic sampling at stations along the long term monitoring Faroe-Shetland Channel section Fair Isle-Munken (Priority 2).
- Conduct combined plankton/hydrographic observations by deploying Aries in the Faroe-Shetland-Channel at selected stations on the Fair Isle-Munken line (Priority 2).
- Recover one ADCP mooring at a position on Faroe-Shetland Channel Faroe-Cape Wrath (FCW/NWZ) section (NWZ-E) (Priority 3).
- Perform hydrographic sampling in the vicinity of the above ADCP mooring in order to calibrate the mooring equipment. CTD dip at mooring location with equipment (SB56 x2 and a MicroCAT) attached to carousel (Priority 3).
- If conditions in the Faroe-Shetland Channel don’t allow further work in the Faroe-Shetland Channel, conduct VMADCP/CTD work in the Moray Firth (Priority 3).
- If weather/time permits, perform a VMADCP survey on the Jonsis line (around 59° 16.96′ N, 001° 15.26′ W) (Priority 3).
- If sheltering in a suitable location around Shetland due to bad weather conduct VMADP/CTD surveys. If time/conditions allow conduct sampling along any of the following sections (in order of priority, no water sampling):
- East of Shetland 2
- East of Shetland 1
- West of Shetland 2
- North of Shetland 1
After departing Aberdeen and completing appropriate drills, the vessel will proceed to the eastern end of the JONSIS line and complete hydrographic stations in a westerly direction (Table 1, Figure 1). On route to JONSIS test deployments of the CTD and carousel will take place around the Buchan Deep. A test of the ARIES system will also be undertaken.
The vessel will then proceed to the Faroe-Shetland Channel. We will commence hydrographic sampling and ARIES sampling at selected stations along the Nolso Flugga survey line (Table 2, Figure 1).
On completion of the Nolso Flugga line, if time allows, the vessel will proceed to conduct hydrographic sampling and ARIES sampling at selected stations on the Fair Isle-Munken survey line (Table 4, Figure 1). Towed deployments of the ARIES sampler will be carried out only at selected stations along the two lines in the Faroe-Shetland-Channel.
The AlterEco line in the North Sea is high priority so depending on weather conditions and timing Scotia will make its way to the eastern end of the line for sampling (Table 3, Figure 1).
If time allows recover the NWZE mooring (plus CTD cast) in the FSC before heading to the AlterEco line (Figure 1).
In case we are sheltering in a suitable location around Shetland run the VMADCP and perform CTD sampling along specified lines.
If time/weather is better suited for work in the Moray Firth, conduct VMADCP/CTD survey in the Moray Firth.
If time/weather allows perform a VMADCP transect on the Jonsis line.
Mooring Positions (Recovery)
NWZE – 59° 54.56’ N 006° 10.14’ W (775 m) on FCW
It is expected that deployments of hydrographic equipment will be carried out with the CTD crane whilst the vessel is on station.
The ARIES deployments from the trawl deck will use the plankton crane.
Three container laboratories will be required (one wet chemical analysis laboratory, two dry containers for electronics work and communications with sampling equipment). Plankton sample sorting and processing will be carried out in part of the fish laboratory.
Hydrophones for receiving data from the plankton samplers will be installed on the drop keel before the start of the survey.
All plankton samples will be preserved in formaldehyde solution and ethanol.
CTD, Optical Plankton Counter and ARIES data will be worked on at sea.
The thermosalinograph will be run throughout the survey.
Figure 1: Map including the main monitoring lines Jonsis, NOL, AlterEco, and FIM, and the mooring location.
Table 1: JONSIS lineCODES # Name Latitude Longitude Depth Spacing N, T,O, CH, DS 01 JO 1 59° 17.00′ N 02° 14.00′ W 75 m N,CH
02 JO 1A 59° 17.00′ N 02° 5.00′ W 90 m 4.59 nm N,CH
03 JO 2 59° 17.00′ N 01° 56.00′ W 100 m 4.59 nm N, T,O,CH, DS 04 JO 3 59° 17.00′ N 01° 48.00′ W 80 m 4.08 nm N,CH
05 JO 4 59° 17.00′ N 01° 40.00′ W 90 m 4.08 nm N,CH
06 JO 5 59° 17.00′ N 01° 30.00′ W 95 m 5.10 nm N,CH
07 JO 6 59° 17.00′ N 01° 20.00′ W 110 m 5.10 nm N, T,O,CH, DS 08 JO 6A 59° 17.00′ N 01° 10.00′ W 120 m 5.10 nm N,CH
09 JO 7 59° 17.00′ N 01° 0.00′ W 125 m 5.10 nm N,CH
10 JO 8 59° 17.00′ N 00° 40.00′ W 120 m 10.20 nm N,CH
11 JO 9 59° 17.00′ N 00° 20.00′ W 140 m 10.20 nm N, T,O,
CH, DS 12 JO10 59° 17.00′ N 00° 0.00′ W 135 m 10.20 nm Totals 1180 m 68.36 nm
Priority Stations are JO-01, JO-03 and JO-06a, JO-10
Standard depths of water bottles:
5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 75, 100 and bottom*
*Fire a ‘bottom’ bottle if seabed is more than 20m below the lowest standard bottle
Table 2: Nolso-Flugga lineCODES # Name Latitude Longitude Depth Spacing N, CH, DS
01 NOL-01 60° 56.00′ N 01° 00.00′ W 110 m N, CH
ARIES 02 SEFN1 60° 58.70′ N 01° 17.70′ W 125 m 9.00 nm N, CH 03 SEFN2 61° 01.40′ N 01° 35.40′ W 155 m 8.99 nm N, T, O, CH 04 NOL-02 61° 04.00′ N 01° 53.00′ W 270 m 8.91 nm N, CH, DS
ARIES 05 SEFN3 61° 06.00′ N 02° 01.50′ W 440 m 4.57 nm N, CH 06 NOL-03 61° 08.00′ N 02° 10.00′ W 550 m 4.57 nm N, CH 07 SEFN4 61° 09.30′ N 02° 17.50′ W 630 m 3.85 nm N, CH 08 NOL-3a 61° 11.00′ N 02° 25.00′ W 730 m 3.98 nm N, T, O, CH, DS
ARIES 09 NOL-04 61° 14.00′ N 02° 40.00′ W 1080 m 7.82 nm N, CH
ARIES (Priority) 10 NOL-05 61° 21.00′ N 03° 10.00′ W 1370 m 16.03 nm N, T, O, CH
ARIES (Priority) 11 NOL-06 61° 28.00′ N 03° 42.00′ W 1235 m 16.84 nm Nil 12 FARN2 61° 32.00′ N 03° 57.00′ W 1200 m 8.18 nm N, CH, DS
ARIES 13 NOL-07 61° 35.00′ N 04° 15.00′ W 990 m 9.08 nm Nil 14 FARN1 61° 38.00′ N 04° 33.00′ W 530 m 9.07 nm N, T, O, CH
ARIES 15 NOL-08 61° 42.00′ N 04° 51.00′ W 235 m 9.44 nm N, CH
16 NOL-09 61° 49.00′ N 05° 21.00′ W 180 m 15.84 nm N, CH, DS 17 NOL-10 61° 54.00′ N 05° 45.00′ W 290 m 12.37 nm N, T, O,CH
18 NOL-11 62° 00.00′ N 06° 12.00′ W 125 m 14.04 nm Totals 10245 m 162.60 nm
Standard depths of water bottles:
5, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200 and bottom
If all 12 bottles used drop 50m, 200m and 400m depths in this order.
Fire a bottom bottle if seabed is more than 50m below the lowest standard bottle
If stations need to be missed they should be dropped in this order
[Priority 4: FARN1, FARN2], [Priority 3: SEFN1, SEFN2, SEFN3, SEFN4]
[Priority 2, NOL-3a, NOL-05, NOL-07, NOL-10]
ARIES Priorities: drop SEFN1 and NOL8 first
Table 3: AlterEco line
Some stations coincide with the Aberdeen-Hanstholm standard section operated by the Norwegians and Germans;, these are priority stations. The Stonehaven Monitoring Site does not need to be sampled if it was recently (<7 d) sampled as part of SCObs.
CODE # Name Latitude Longitude Depth Spacing N, CH 01 AlterEco1 57° 00.00′ N 02° 04.00′ E N, CH 02 AlterEco2 57° 00.00′ N 01° 48.00′ E 8.72 nm N, CH 03 AlterEco3 57° 00.00′ N 01° 36.00′ E 6.54 nm 04 AlterEco4 57° 00.00′ N 01° 22.00′ E 7.63 nm N, CH 05 AlterEco5 57° 00.00′ N 01° 08.00′ E 7.63 nm 06 AlterEco6 57° 00.00′ N 00° 54.00′ E 7.61 nm N, CH 07 AlterEco7 57° 00.00′ N 00° 40.00′ E 7.61 nm 08 AlterEco8 57° 00.00′ N 00° 27.00′ E 7.09 nm N, CH 09 AlterEco9 57° 00.00′ N 00° 14.00′ E 7.09 nm 10 AlterEco10 57° 00.00′ N 00° 00.00′ E 7.61 nm N, CH 11 AlterEco11 57° 00.00′ N 00° 14.00′ W 7.61 nm 12 AlterEco12 57° 00.00′ N 00° 28.00′ W 7.63 nm N, CH 13 AlterEco13 57° 00.00′ N 00° 42.00′ W 7.63 nm 14 AlterEco14 57° 00.00′ N 00° 55.00′ W 7.07 nm N, CH 15 AlterEco15 57° 00.00′ N 01° 08.00′ W 7.07 nm N, CH 16 AlterEco16 57° 00.00′ N 01° 28.00′ W 10.91 nm 17 AlterEco17 57° 00.00′ N 01° 47.00′ W 10.56 nm N, CH 18 AlterEco18 56° 57.80′ N 02° 06.80′ W 10.78 nm Totals 136.83 nm
Priority Stations are AlterEco1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 16. AlterEco18 is a priority station if the SCObs sampling programme has not visited the site in the previous 7 days.
Standard depths of water bottles:
10, 30, 50, and bottom*
*Fire a ‘bottom’ bottle if seabed is more than 20m below the lowest standard bottle
Table 4: Fair Isle – Munken line
(Amended for presence of Foinaven oil platform)
CODE # Name Latitude Longitude Depth Spacing N, CH, DS 01 FIM-01 60° 10.00′ N 03° 44.00′ W 150 m N, CH 02 SEFF1 60° 13.00′ N 03° 51.50′ W 170 m 4.74 nm N, T, O, CH 03 FIM-02 60° 16.00′ N 03° 59.00′ W 200 m 4.84 nm N, CH
ARIES 04 SEFF2 60° 18.00′ N 04° 04.50′ W 330 m 3.36 nm N, CH, DS * 05 FIM-03 60° 20.00′ N 04° 10.00′ W 390 m 3.03 nm N, CH 06 FIM-04 60° 25.00′ N 04° 19.00′ W 655 m 6.88 nm N, CH
ARIES 07 FIM-05 60° 29.00′ N 04° 26.00′ W 995 m 5.45 nm N,T,O,CH
ARIES (Priority) 08 FIM-06 60° 35.00′ N 04° 45.00′ W 1090 m 11.15 nm N, CH, DS 09 FIM-6a 60° 38.00′ N 04° 54.00′ W 1030 m 5.33 nm N, CH
ARIES 10 FIM-07 60° 43.00′ N 05° 06.00′ W 915 m 7.70 nm N, T, O, CH 11 FIM-08 60° 47.00′ N 05° 16.00′ W 830 m 6.34 nm N, CH, DS 12 FIM-09 60° 51.00′ N 05° 29.00′ W 600 m 7.36 nm Nil 13 FARF3 60° 56.70′ N 05° 42.80′ W 333 m 8.90 nm N, CH
ARIES 14 FIM-10 61° 02.00′ N 05° 57.00′ W 280 m 8.68 nm Nil 15 FARF2 61° 07.20′ N 06° 09.40′ W 250 m 7.95 nm N, T, O, CH, DS 16 FIM-11 61° 12.00′ N 06° 22.00′ W 240 m 7.67 nm Nil 17 FARF1 61° 16.40′ N 06° 37.70′ W 100 m 8.80 nm Totals 8,558 m 108.18 nm
* FIM-03 – Use 60 20.25’N 004 09.00’W if above position is occupied.
Standard depths of water bottles:
5, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000 and bottom
If all 12 bottles used drop 50m depth. Fire a bottom bottle if seabed is more than 50m below the lowest standard bottle
If stations need to be missed they should be dropped in this order
[Priority 4: FARF1, FARF2. FARF3], [Priority 3: SEFF1, SEFF2], [Priority 2, FIM-04, FIM-06a, FIM-07]
ARIES Priorities: drop SEFF2 and FIM10 first (Highest priority in this order: FIM6, FIM7, FIM5)
- More Faroe-Shetland blogs
- Marine Scotland research vessels and surveys
- Other research vessel survey blogs
Duration: 6-19 December 2017
- Sandeel dredge × 2 (modified 4′ scallop dredge with 6″ teeth and spare toothbars) with towing bar and camera attachment.
- TV camera.
- Minilogger (or equivalent).
- To determine the abundance, length and age of sandeels in the sediment from regions east of the Firth of Forth and around Turbot bank.
- To collect and preserve samples of A. marinus, specifically i) all 0-group sandeels (size to be estimated from age/length keys of sampled catches) not required for age determination; ii) 100 age-1 individuals from each of the northerly and southerly sub-regions.
- To determine the sex and maturity stage of all sandeels selected for ageing.
All required gear will be loaded onto the vessel on 4 December. Scientific staff will be transported to Leith to join the vessel on 6 December.
Two regions of historical importance for sandeel fishing will be surveyed (see Figure 1 above). In the first half of the survey a series of eight dredge stations to the east of the Firth of Forth will be sampled following the protocol established in 1999. A modified scallop dredge will be used to catch sandeels buried in the substrate at the priority stations given in Table 1 and Figure 2 (below). Further stations in this region will be sampled if time permits. In the second half of the survey, the dredge will be deployed at stations 20-36 in the Turbot bank region. Ideally five repeat tows will be conducted at each station although this may be reduced to a minimum of two if catch quantities are low or available time is limited. Dredge duration will be approximately ten minutes at a towing speed between two and three (ideally 2.5) knots.
At each dredge station, all sandeels will be identified to species level, measured, and otoliths (five, eight or ten depending on length strata, per half centimetre) will be taken for age determination (Objective 1).
All 0-group sandeels will be retained and frozen individually for later analysis. Sub-samples of 100 age-1 (size to be determined from age-length keys of sampled catches) A. marinus will be taken from the northerly (latitude > 57°N) and southerly (latitude < 57°N) sub-regions (objective 2).
Sandeels selected for ageing will be hand stripped and assigned a maturity stage based on a simple three-point scale (I = immature/indeterminate sex; MM= mature male; MF = mature female). Immature individuals will be individually frozen for further dissection and assigned to one of two stages (IM =Immature male or IF= Immature Female) (objective 3).
Who are you and what do you do?
I’m Helen Downie, a fisheries biologist in the Salmon Assessment Group, based at the freshwater field laboratory in Montrose. I’m also involved with the Women and Equalities Network, which is looking to address gender balance in Marine Scotland.
Lastly, I also act as the local admin cover here in Montrose, so if you call our office then you’ll likely find yourself speaking to me.
Why is what you do important?
The Salmon Assessment Group collects, collates and securely stores data on salmon and sea trout stocks which is used to support the development of policy on the management of these species. This data feeds into the conservation status assessment for rivers across Scotland which, under the Conservation Regulations, is used to determine whether salmon fisheries may retain fish in given areas. These data also contribute to the catch advice for fisheries, such as those in West Greenland, which exploit salmon stocks from a range of countries bordering the North Atlantic.
My work chairing the Career Progression Focus Group contributed to the creation of the Women and Equalities Network that I mentioned above. This was formed as a tool to understand and address the factors causing a disparity in gender diversity with regards to staff grades. This work is important as creating a fairer workplace will benefit all staff and ensure we make the most of our talent.
What’s your career path been – how did you get here?
I became interested in native species conservation and mammal reintroduction through the course of my degree in Animal Behaviour and Welfare. Towards the end of my degree I heard that a charity local to home, Ayrshire Rivers Trust, was conducting water vole reintroductions. I contacted them to see if I could volunteer during my Easter holiday, and from there got a job as a summer assistant and later assistant biologist.
Inevitably my focus moved from mammals to freshwater fish – wild Atlantic salmon in particular. Unfortunately working for a charity amidst a recession meant that I had no job security, so I soon looked further afield and ended up here in Montrose.
If you weren’t doing this, what do you think you’d be doing instead?
Tough question. I like to think I could be tracking lynx in Norway, but realistically that would probably be too cold for me. I’m sure wildlife conservation would be my main focus, but who knows, perhaps I’d be a potter instead.
What’s your favourite fishy fact?
I can’t say I have one specifically, but I particularly like the symbiotic relationship between the goby and the pistol shrimp. In return for the goby acting as a “guide fish” to the blind shrimp, alerting it to predators and generally keeping nearby whilst the shrimp feels around for its dinner, the goby gets to live in the shrimp’s burrow and shelter from predators.
And what about one fun fact about you?
Those that know me know that I’m obsessed with rock climbing. I won’t be winning any medals anytime soon, but I am very proud to have climbed the Penyal d’Ifac in Spain. It wasn’t a hard climb technically, but quite difficult mentally thanks to my fear of heights!
Today we’ve published the latest in its Scottish Marine & Freshwater Science series – Scottish Scallop Stocks: Results of 2016 Stock Assessments.
Scallops are an important species for the Scottish fishing industry. The Scottish commercial dredge fishery for king scallop (Pecten maximus) began in the 1930s in the Clyde. It has since expanded around the coast of mainland Scotland and its islands to become the second most important shellfish fishery in Scotland. In 2015, total scallop landings into Scotland were in excess of 10,000 tonnes with a value at first-sale of almost £23 million. Over 90 % of these landings came from dredge fisheries and most of the remainder was taken by commercial divers.
The report presents the results of Scottish regional scallop stock assessments carried out by Marine Scotland Science based on commercial catch-at-age data up to 2015, and survey data up to and including 2016. Stock assessments are presented for the East Coast, North East, North West, Shetland and West of Kintyre scallop stocks, with catch data presented for the Clyde, Irish Sea and Orkney. The report also gives background information on Scottish fisheries for scallops and a description of the current management and regulatory framework.
The stock assessments provide estimates of fishing mortality, recruitment and spawning stock biomass over time and the trends in these quantities vary between areas. For example, recruitment to stocks off the east coast of Scotland has declined in recent years, whereas on the west coast it has increased, resulting in increased biomass in this area. Currently there are no agreed reference points for Scottish scallop stocks. Management advice is therefore provided on the basis of estimates of recent fishing mortality, recruitment and biomass in relation to historical values.
The post New report published on Scottish Scallop Stocks: Results of 2016 Stock Assessments appeared first on Marine Scotland.
Renewable energy from offshore wind, wave and tidal stream developments is a key component of the Scottish Governments’ ambitions for creating a low carbon economy that contributes to action on climate change.
However, concern exists over the potential for such marine developments to negatively impact seabirds, marine mammals, and other protected species or habitats.
A key element of understanding the effects of renewables developments on the environment is the robust and effective monitoring of birds and marine mammals around constructed developments. Animals may move away from the development due to disturbance or displacement. However, detecting these changes is difficult because the number of animals may change at a site, or they may move within the site, regardless of any disturbances.
The challenge is to determine if any changes are due to a development or if these changes could have occurred anyway. Surveys of the site are therefore generally conducted before any development takes place, during construction and after construction in order to reliably determine any effects.
Statistical methods can be used to identify changes over time and across the site, but the ability of a study to detect genuine change is a statistical concept called its ‘power’. This essentially quantifies the chance that a study will correctly identify a genuine change.
A 2014 review of monitoring to detect changes in distribution or abundance of birds at offshore wind farms recommended using power analysis when determining the design and level of effort of monitoring surveys. This would ensure that the monitoring proposed could realistically be expected to detect the magnitude of effects that may be of interest. This avoids limited resources being wasted, and helps advance our understanding of offshore renewables effects as rapidly as possible.
Marine Scotland commissioned the Centre for Research into Ecological and Environmental Modelling (CREEM) at the University of St Andrews to review the available power analysis approaches and develop power analysis software.
The software (MRSeaPower) is a free package designed to work alongside the package MRSea (Marine Renewables Strategic environmental assessment) which was also developed by CREEM under contract to Marine Scotland. Both packages work with the freely available R software environment for statistical computing and graphics (www.r-project.org).
Whilst developed for seabird and marine mammal observation survey data, and marine mammal passive acoustic monitoring data, the MRSeaPower software would be suitable for other types of animals and environments.
The review of power analysis approaches, MRSeaPower software, case studies and user guide are available on the Marine Scotland webpages.
Duration: 30 November – 4 December
- BT 158 with 50 mm cod-end
- 2 m beam trawl with 50 mm cod-end
- Day grab and table
- Catamaran and neuston net
- To undertake flatfish sampling in St Andrews Bay, inner Firth of Forth, and the Forth estuary in support of the Clean Seas Environment Monitoring Programme (OSPAR and MSFD D8).
- To undertake sediment sampling in the St Andrews Bay, Outer Firth of Forth and the Forth estuary in support of the Clean Seas Environment Monitoring Programme (OSPAR and MSFD D8).
- To undertake survey of sea-surface litter in surface waters of the Forth and Scottish east coast and record seabed litter collected by the trawls (MSFD D10)
- To undertake fish, shellfish and sediment sampling in support of the microplastics ROAME (ST014).
Fishing and scientific gear will be loaded in Leith at the end of the previous survey, prior to Alba na Mara sailing on 30 November.
Flounder will be sampled in St Andrews Bay and in the Forth estuary (Tancred bank), dab will be sampled in the inner Firth of Forth. Five sediment stations will be sampled at each of St Andrews Bay, the outer Firth of Forth and the Forth estuary; at each station two grabs will be taken: one for contaminants and one for microplaastics.
The neuston trawl will be deployed in the Forth estuary, the Firth of Forth, and off the east coasts of Fife and East Lothian. This net is to be towed at five knots, or less, for 30-90 minutes in order to collect and sample microplastics floating on the sea surface. An additional sediment sample to be collected by Day grab from under the course of each catamaran tow for subsequent microplastics determinations. Samples a variety of fish species will be adventitiously sampled from the trawls and frozen for work-up in the laboratory as part the microplastics ROAME (ST014).
Records will be made of seabed litter caught by the trawls.
Tables 1, 2 and 3 (below) list the sediment, fishing and sea surface litter survey sites, respectively.
As the tidal renewable industry continues to grow, increasing our understanding of the way that marine mammals use tidally energetic areas is of particular importance. This is a particular issue as there is increasing evidence that tidal energetic areas can be important foraging areas for marine mammals, therefore understanding how marine mammals use the water column is required to improve assessments of the risk of collision between seals and tidal turbines in highly energetic areas.
Building on work undertaken in a previous project which developed an improved collision risk modelling approach, utilising the most up to date information available on how seals (specifically harbour seals) use tidally active areas, this report presents a specific case study on how harbour (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) use the water column within the Brims tidal energy lease area, located between Orkney and the north coast of Scotland. The Brims site is much deeper than the site used in the original work and so provides an opportunity to consider how this affects seals’ use of the water column.
Summarising the most up to date telemetry data from 20 seals tagged between 2010 and 2016, the report details the proportion of time seals spent at different depths in the water column, as well as the number of times seals passed through different water depths during foraging dives in the Brims site.
The work, undertaken by the Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) at the University of St Andrews, is an important step in understanding how seals use the water in highly energetic areas which can be used to inform collision risk models on the risks posed between seals and tidal turbines.
The post Understanding how seals use the water column in tidally energetic areas appeared first on Marine Scotland.
On November 6th the Alba na Mara set sail once more to deploy acoustic listening devices in the west coast of Scotland. A total of six moorings containing broadband sound recording devices and cetacean echolocation “click detectors” were to be deployed during the trip. The map below gives the planned locations for deployment.
These deployments were the first instalment of a collaborative biological monitoring network that will form part of a five year collaborative project called COMPASS, funded under EU INTERREG VA. The COMPASS network of moorings aims to gather data that will characterise and monitor the marine environment in relation to protected areas and species, and improve oceanographic models in Scottish, Northern Irish and Irish waters.
The COMPASS deployment positions were spread out around the Minches strategically to gather relevant acoustic data. Shipping lines, fishing activity, physical processes and marine fauna all generate noise. This array seeks to discern their contribution to the acoustic environment. For example the northmost mooring at Tolsta will provide data that will help to generate an acoustic baseline for the well-established shipping lane noise through the winter. Other deployments have been sited within or in the vicinity of the Inner Hebrides and the Minches pSAC to protect harbour porpoises, and one of the moorings will be in the Stanton Banks protected area. The variety of habitats that the array covers will create a highly informative and varied data set, and will be used to explore the importance of underwater noise in influencing the quality of the marine environmental quality for marine mammals.
Alba also recovered moorings that had been deployed at eight positions in the Minches under EMFF funding in August 2017 . Some of these were not collected due to weather constraints and will be re-visited as soon as it becomes logistically possible.
During the survey we gave Ross Culloch a newly employed cetacean scientist in the Renewables and Energy Programme, his first taste of the Alba na Mara, and hosted Denise Risch from SAMS, Dunstaffnage.
The weather did not exactly play ball and a few decisions were based around maximising the outcomes despite the strong winds and rough seas. But that is what can be expected at this time of year in the Minches.
We will keep you updated on the next cruises for this project.
- Previous blog about this survey (6 Nov 2017): At Loggerheads with PAM
- Marine Scotland research vessels and surveys
- Other research vessel survey blogs
A new scientific journal article written by researchers at Marine Scotland Science (MSS), in collaboration with the Scottish Fish Immunology Research Centre (SFIRC) at the University of Aberdeen, has been published in the Journal of Fish Diseases.
The principal author, Rachel Chance, is a PhD. student funded by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3R’s).
The paper, entitled “Effect of repeated exposure to AQUI-S® on the viability and growth of Neoparamoeba perurans”, focuses on the effect of fish anaesthetics on the amoeba species Neoparamoeba perurans.
Neoparamoeba perurans is an amoeboid ectoparasite, naturally occurring in the marine environment, which is responsible for amoebic gill disease (AGD) in salmon and other fish species. During AGD infection, these microscopic amoebae attach to the sensitive gill tissue, causing excess mucus production, inflammation and damage to the fragile gill filaments and lamellae. Arising in the mid 1980’s in Tasmanian salmonid aquaculture, AGD is now a major issue for European aquaculture, impacting in particular upon farmed Atlantic salmon.
The aim of the paper was to find out if repeated exposure to different fish anaesthetics had any impact on the growth and viability of N. perurans. Researchers at SFIRC and MSS are interested in this question as they wish to develop an improved experimental model to better understand the disease process and how the fish respond to AGD. This could lead to better treatments. The improved model consists of repeated non-invasive sampling (such as light gill sampling with cotton swabs) of individual infected fish. Material obtained from the swabs can be used to look at immune and other responses, and number of parasites. It is hoped that because the disease can be followed over time in the same fish, that the data will be less variable, more informative, and less fish will be needed. These analyses are still ongoing but a first step in achieving this goal was to see if repeated anaesthesia, used to reduce any stress experienced by the fish during sampling, would affect the amoebae and change artificially the disease outcome. The published paper describes how AQUI-S®, an anaesthetic which closely resembles clove oil, had no impact upon both the viability nor growth of colonies of the N. perurans amoebae grown in vitro in the laboratory. This outcome allowed the non-invasive sampling approach to be tested in vivo with infected fish.
- Read the paper (Fully Open Access)
- Marine Scotland Science
- National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3R’s)
We are currently seeking applications for a Species Distribution Modeller within the Ecology and Conservation group of Marine Scotland Science based in Aberdeen. This is a permanent and pensionable appointment and new entrants will normally start on the minimum of the pay range. Candidates with a disability who meet the essential criteria below will be invited to the assessments.
The main role of this post is to develop and lead on research themes relating to: species distribution modelling, marine spatial planning and geographic information systems (GIS), fisheries effort data (VMS), MPA design, and marine conservation. The post will include participation in research surveys and the production of peer-review manuscripts and will provide logistical and technical support (e.g. statistical and GIS advice).
A PhD in biological or environmental science with a very strong numerical component.
1. A proven ability in working with large databases (e.g. PostGreSQL), spatial statistics, computational platforms (e.g. R), GIS software (e.g. QGIS, ArcGIS) and spatial databases (e.g. PostGIS).
2. Sea-going expertise in benthic mapping on board research vessels and the willingness to travel, and, on occasion, work unsocial hours.
3. Evidence of excellent organisational skills and the ability to work both within a project team and independently.
1. Experience of handling fisheries effort data (VMS).
2. Familiarity with Linux, working across platforms, and using off-site data centres.
For further information on this vacancy please download and review the “Person Specification and Further Information for Job Applicants” which you will find below. To apply, you must fully complete and submit an online application via this website before the closing date.
If you experience any difficulties accessing our website or completing the online application form, please contact HR Resourcing on 0131 244 8217 or via email.
You should read each of the Essential Criteria and think about a time or an example that can help demonstrate your knowledge/skills. Remember, this must be evidence based and your answers should be clear, concise and reflect what actions you undertook. You may want to use the STAR(R) approach to respond to each criterion.
The post Vacancy – Species Distribution Modeller (Closing date – 21 December 2017) appeared first on Marine Scotland.
We are currently seeking applications for a Physical Oceanographer within the Oceanography Group of Marine Scotland Science (MSS) based in Aberdeen. This is a permanent and pensionable appointment and new entrants will normally start on the minimum of the pay range. Candidates with a disability who meet the essential criteria below will be invited to the assessments.
The Oceanography Group provides the physical environment context across a wide range of multidisciplinary scientific applications in MSS. The very diverse duties of this post include data acquisition (including in the field), processing and quality assurance, scientific programming and interaction with specialist oceanographic instrumentation.
A relevant graduate qualification in a mathematical, physical, earth science or any other relevant discipline with evidence of a good numeric ability.
1. Experience of basic statistical or mathematical analysis of data using appropriate software tools (e.g. Excel, Matlab, R).
2. Experience of basic report writing.
3. Basic knowledge of quality assurance procedures, data handling and processing.
4. Good verbal communication skills to ensure that you can work effectively within the team.
5. As this post requires working on-board research and commercial fishing vessels you must be willing and able to work at sea. You must hold an ENG1 (off-shore) medical certificate or have the ability to pass the required medical.
1. Experience and/or a relevant post-graduate qualification in a branch of aquatic or earth sciences or any other relevant discipline with clear evidence of a strong numeric ability; ideally, physical oceanography.
2. Sea-going and/or field working experience, in particular experience in the use of standard oceanographic equipment in the field.
For further information on this vacancy please download and review the “Person Specification and Further Information for Job Applicants” which you will find below. To apply, you must fully complete and submit an online application via this website before the closing date. To learn more about this opportunity, please contact Dr Alejandro Gallego (email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org or telephone 0131 2442697).
If you experience any difficulties accessing our website or completing the online application form, please contact the resourcing team on 0131 244 5597 or via email@example.com.
You should read each of the Essential/Desirable Criteria and think about a time or an example that can help demonstrate your knowledge/skills. Remember, this must be evidence based and your answers should be clear, concise and reflect what actions you undertook. You may want to use the STAR(R) approach to respond to each criterion.Further information
The post Vacancy – Physical Oceanographer (Closing date – 19 December 2017) appeared first on Marine Scotland.
Marine Scotland Compliance is responsible for deterring and detecting illegal activities through effective compliance and enforcement arrangements. We employ Marine staff that are responsible for the crewing of Marine Scotland Compliance’s three Marine Protection vessels and Coastal Inspection staff, who make up the Sea Fisheries Inspectorate. The Coastal staff are located at 18 Fishery Offices around the coast of Scotland, and at the Registration of Buyers and Sellers (RBS) Unit which is based in Aberdeen.
Applications are invited for a Fishery Assistant post within the Coastal Operations team based at Aberdeen Fishery Office. The Fishery Assistant is the normal first point of contact for stakeholders, other government departments/agencies and the general public to Marine Scotland be it in person or over the phone. As such, they will have knowledge of Marine Scotland’s Aims and Objectives and therefore be able to put the caller in touch with the correct person.
The Fishery Assistant provides general administrative support and must be able to work with minimal supervision. They are responsible for the timely and accurate input of fisheries data and analysis of same.
Responsibilities include :
- Word processing
- Licence issues
- Statistical input and data capture on computer
- Basic figure work
- Dealing with the public and stakeholders.
- General office work.
1. Working knowledge of Marine Scotland IT systems and knowledge of Microsoft Packages.
2. Knowledge of Marine Scotland Structure.
Minimum time in post and Development Opportunities
The successful candidate will be expected to remain in post for a minimum of 3 years unless successful at gaining promotion to a higher Band or Grade.
Provisional Dates for Sift and Assessment
The sift will take place around the – 4th December 2017
Assessment to follow on the – to be confirmed.
For further information on this vacancy, please contact Duncan MacGregor on 0131 244 3930 or by email Duncan.Macgregor@gov.scot. To apply please complete the online application form.
The post Vacancy – Fishery Assistant (closing date 30 November 2017) appeared first on Marine Scotland.
Today is World Fisheries Day, so what better day to introduce you to our Sea Fisheries Programme Manager, Dr Coby Needle!
Who are you and what do you do?
I am Dr Coby Needle, and for the past two (and a bit) years I have been the Sea Fisheries Programme Manager at Marine Scotland Science, based in the Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen. My “science” work centres on fisheries stock assessment and advice, including management strategy evaluations and the development of stock assessment methods, and in recent years I have also delved into fleet dynamics and understanding why fishermen do what they do. This all complements my “management” work – leading a team of around 60 people does take a lot of time and energy, but I enjoy helping folk do what they are trying to do, as well as directing the science that the Programme is involved in. It certainly isn’t dull!
Why is what you do important?
The Sea Fisheries Programme, and by extension Marine Scotland Science, is the principal source of fisheries management advice in Scotland, and the work we do is therefore crucial to the development and maintenance of sustainable fish stocks and fisheries for the foreseeable future. This starts with sampling and data collection at fish markets and on board commercial and research vessels, and goes through many analysis, modelling and consultation steps to the final annual advice for policy colleagues in Edinburgh, London and Brussels. Of course, I only play a small part in this, but it’s good to know that the work I am doing is truly applied and can make a positive difference to people’s lives and the environment in which we live.
I was born in Adelaide, and we moved to Scotland when I was still quite young – this was when the cheapest way to come to Europe was still by sea, so my first seatime was a three-week jaunt on an Italian cruise liner. I was brought up in Edinburgh, but moved to Aberdeen for my BSc in Maths and Computing. A brief stint at Strathclyde for an MSc in Applied Maths intervened, but no-one ever truly leaves Aberdeen and I came back to do my MSc summer project (with Bill Turrell), get married (to Jillian) and have our children (Lucy and Lewis, now 22 and 19 respectively). I was an itinerant mathematician and worked relatively short-term contracts at the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology in Glassel, and the Department of Geography at Aberdeen University, before coming back to the Lab for good in the Population Studies Group under Phil Kunzlik. And here I’ve been ever since (including a part-time PhD at Strathclyde), with working life becoming slightly more complicated (but always enjoyable) and the offices slightly larger as time goes by.
If you weren’t doing this, what do you think you’d be doing instead?
I love sport of all kinds, and have become obsessed with running, swimming, football, cricket, golf, tai chi, skiing, squash and cycling (amongst others) over the years. Sadly I’ve only ever been moderate at best at any of them, but if I had found a sport I was good at then I would like to have tried becoming a professional. Alternatively, and this is still an option – the life of a golf greenskeeper does appeal!
What’s your favourite fishy fact?
It’s not really a fishy fact, but when you think about it, the thermal properties of water are quite amazing – specifically, that the density of water increases as temperature falls to around 4°C before reducing again to the extent that ice floats. Without this weird feature, there would of course be no life on Earth – which seems like a handy coincidence…
And what about one fun fact about you?
I love to play the guitar (the one in my office isn’t just for show…), but the only times I have played in public have been the Lab Christmas band, and one year for the Lab Quiz (some of you might remember I would mangle some popular toons, and then the quizees had to name the bands and songs). So in my retirement, if the greenskeeper job doesn’t work out, I can always take up busking.
Duration: 18-27 November 2017
Gear: Surface and subsurface PAM moorings
To retrieve a series of moorings comprising dhan buoys (eight surface marked moorings) or acoustic release systems (22 subsurface moorings) and the acoustic recording devices attached to them (30 C-POD and 10 SM2M/SM3M) as part of the east coast marine mammal monitoring programme (see Table 1 and Figure 1).
Alba na Mara will sail from Fraserburgh on the morning of 18 November and make for the first mooring position. The ultimate order in which the moorings are retrieved will be dictated by the weather forecast and the likely shelter that can be provided by the east coast.
Acoustically triggered moorings that may have malfunctioned but can be located by echosounder will be grappled for using the creeping hook attached to the trawl warp.
It may be necessary for Alba na Mara to make a partial unloading of retrieved moorings to ensure enough available space on the vessel. If this is the case the vessel will visit the most suitable port depending on her location at the time.
If time allows Alba na Mara will attempt to retrieve further moorings in Stonehaven Bay and Aberdeen Bay. R. Main may join the vessel for Aberdeen Bay retrievals which have acoustic release systems and salmon receivers attached to them.
Earlier this year, we were involved with a joint project to survey the German High Seas Fleet in Scapa Flow, Orkney. Historic Environment Scotland is now reviewing the protection of these wrecks of as they are scheduled monuments, and they would like to explore if that continues to be the best way of recognising and protecting this hugely important part of our wartime heritage.
Orkney has one of the most outstanding collections of First World War and Second World War remains, both above ground and under water.
The array of underwater archaeological remains includes wrecks from the scuttling of the German High Seas Fleet in June 1919, two major naval disasters with significant loss of life (the loss of the HMS Vanguard in 1917, and HMS Royal Oak in 1939), and the supply and defence of the Royal Navy anchorage using block ships, barriers, and networks of mobile boom defences.
A major resource for salvage from 1919 to the 1970s, nowadays the wrecks of the German High Seas Fleet are a significant heritage asset, attracting visitors from all over the world and contributing to the economy of Orkney.
Recent survey work by ourselves and our partners on Orkney has shed new light on how much survives underwater. Our research shows that the condition of the wrecks is deteriorating and these important remains will not last forever.
Andrew Fulton, Senior Designations Officer, explains more about the review, “We’d like to talk to everyone who has an interest in Scapa Flow to hear their views about its marine heritage. Scapa Flow is an important harbour and is used by many different communities and we’d like to know more about this too.
“We’ll be in Orkney during the first week of December and I’d really like to talk to as many people with an involvement in Scapa Flow as possible. The feedback we get will help inform how the current protection of the German High Seas Fleet wrecks is working and whether any changes need to be made.
“I’m also looking for views on whether any of the other wartime underwater sites within Scapa Flow merit designation and if, so, what would be the best mechanism to achieve this.”
There are a variety of ways which the public can offer their views. We have an online survey which is open to everyone and can be accessed on our website at historicenvironment.scot/scapa-flow-survey. Andrew will be holding drop-in sessions at three locations in Hoy, Kirkwall and Stromness between 4 and 7 December 2017. Everyone with an interest in Scapa Flow is encouraged to come along and share their views. More details about the drop-in sessions will be available on our website historicenvironment.scot/scapaflow.
Monday 4th December – YM Hall, Longhope, Hoy 3:30pm-7:30pm
Tuesday 5th Decmber – Pickaquoy Centre, Kirkwall 4:00pm-8:00pm
Wednesday 6th December – John Rae Room, Old Warehouse Building, Orkney Council, Stromness. 5:00pm -8:00pm
Thursday 7th December – John Rae Room, Old Warehouse Building, Orkney Council, Stromness. 5:00pm-8:00pm
Notes for editors:
- Seven wrecks from the German High Seas Fleet were designated as scheduled monuments in 2001. The scheduling means that visitors can dive on the wrecks on a look but don’t touch basis so long as no damage occurs or objects are removed. Scheduled monument consent from Historic Environment Scotland is required for works to a scheduled monument.
- The wrecks of the HMS Royal Oak and HMS Vanguard are designated as controlled sites under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986. The responsible authority is the Ministry of Defence. Although a hugely important part of the story of Scapa Flow, their status does not form part of this review.
About Historic Environment Scotland
- Historic Environment Scotland (HES) is the lead public body charged with caring for, protecting and promoting the historic environment. HES is also the lead on delivering Scotland’s first strategy for the historic environment, Our Place in Time.
- Historic Scotland is a sub brand of Scotland’s new public heritage body, Historic Environment Scotland
- Historic Environment Scotland is a registered Scottish Charity. Scottish Charity No. SC045925
- You can keep up to date with news from Historic Environment Scotland and register for media release email alerts. If you ish to unsubscribe, please contact us.
- 2017 Year of History, Heritage and Archaeology
Running from 1 January to 31 December, the 2017 Year of History, Heritage and Archaeology is a celebration of Scotland’s people, our distinct culture and traditions, our historic landscapes, attractions, icons, as well as our hidden gems and amazing stories.
From World Heritage Sites to ancient monuments, listed buildings to historic battlefields, cultural traditions to our myths, stories and legends, 2017 is the year to explore Scotland’s fascinating past. Discover how this past has shaped the thriving Scotland we know today and its future, with its proud and welcoming spirit.
Enjoy the splendour of some of Scotland’s most famous and dramatic castles, visit your clan’s homeland, experience the breathtaking sounds of a hundred pipers skirling or stare in wonder at the ever-changing natural landscapes that have played a key part in Scotland’s history.
Discover tales of legendary kings and queens, Jacobite battles, stories handed down from one generation to the next, all set against Scotland’s unique panoramic landscapes and enriching culture.
From the Scottish Borders to Orkney, and from Fife to the Isle of Skye – every area of Scotland has its own story to share. Relive Scotland’s past to the present day through a range of exciting events, attractions and activities during 2017 and come make history with us!
Contact: Seumas Skinner, Communications Officer
Direct line: 0131 668 8714
Mobile: 07776 243 809
Duration: 13 November – 3 December 2017
Fishing Gear: GOV Trawl (BT137) and ground gear D (hoppers)
- To participate in the ICES co-ordinated western division demersal trawling survey.
- To obtain temperature and salinity data profiles at each trawling position.
- To collect additional biological data in connection with the EU data collection framework (DCF).
All fishing gear and scientific equipment will be loaded aboard during the landing day of 1517S. Scotia will sail on 13 November and (after all safety drills and shakedown trawl shoot) commence fishing operations the following morning on the stations to the west of the Orkneys. Weather conditions at the time will determine the exact start area. Survey schedule and operations will be decided by SIC after daily consultation with Fishing Master and Captain. A half landing with be made around 23 or 24 November into Greenock or possibly Belfast to exchange staff, but the date and port are to be confirmed once the vessel has commenced the survey.
This is a random-stratified survey design with trawl stations being distributed within twelve predefined strata covering the sampling area. One trawl haul of thirty minutes duration will be made within a radius of five nautical miles of each core positions shown on the attached chart. If trawling is not possible at the core location then the nearest appropriate secondary/alternative station will be used. Final trawl locations will be decided after SIC consultations with Fishing Master. For each haul, the Scanmar monitoring system and NOAA bottom contact sensor will be used to observe and record the performance and geometry of the trawl and trawl doors.
All fish will be treated according to current standard research vessel procedures and additional biological data will be collected as determined by EU data regulation 1639/2001 and 1581/2004.
CTD casts will be taken at each trawl station. Please note the thermosalinograph will not be run during this survey.
The post Testing the water with an International Bottom Trawl Survey appeared first on Marine Scotland.
We are currently seeking applications for a Fisheries Observer within the Stock and Fishery Science Group of Marine Scotland Science based in Aberdeen. This is a permanent and pensionable appointment and new entrants will normally start on the minimum of the pay range. Candidates with a disability who meet the essential criteria below will be invited to the assessments.
The post holder will support scientific advice for fish stocks important to Scotland by collecting fisheries data and participating in laboratory based scientific activities such as Otolith reading for age determination. Applicants must be capable of and willing to: work at sea on board commercial fishing and research vessels; travel to remote locations in Scotland; and on occasions work unsociable hours. The post involves significant travel therefore a drivers license would be beneficial.
For jobs in Bands A, you must hold a minimum of 5 Standard Grades (grades 1-3) or Ordinary Grades (grades A-C) including English and a numerical subject. Other qualifications equivalent to these may also be acceptable, if you are in any doubt please contact the Resourcing Officer named at the end of this advert to discuss.
1. Good organisational skills, ability to plan and prioritise work and use your own initiative.
2. To be a confident communicator with good verbal and written communication skills.
3. An ability to apply basic numerical and computer skills (including familiarity with Microsoft Word and Excel or similar).
4. Experience of working on sea going commercial or research vessels.
5. Experience of collecting and accurately recording data. For example, this could be data collected through surveys, fieldwork or experiments, or could be social or financial data, stock taking, etc.
For further information on this vacancy please download and review the “Person Specification and Further Information for Job Applicants” which you will find below. To apply, you must fully complete and submit an online application via this website before the closing date. To learn more about this opportunity, please contact Nabeil Salama who can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org or 0131 244 3205.
If you experience any difficulties accessing our website or completing the online application form, please contact the resourcing team on 0131 244 9875 or via email@example.com.Further information for this job
Apply for this job
You should read each of the Essential/Desirable Criteria and think about a time or an example that can help demonstrate your knowledge/skills. Remember, this must be evidence based and your answers should be clear, concise and reflect what actions you undertook. You may want to use the STAR(R) approach to respond to each criterion.
The post Vacancy – Fisheries Observer (closing date 21st November 2017) appeared first on Marine Scotland.
Who are you and what do you do?
I am a new employee in the Environment Group at Marine Scotland Science Freshwater Fisheries Laboratory (MSS-FFL). I am currently undertaking large-scale (all of Scotland) spatial data analysis, using R as a GIS, to create national scale datasets of river habitat proxies e.g. elevation, river width, bankside woodland. These datasets are used as inputs for both our national juvenile density and river temperature models and allow predictions to be made for any river location in Scotland. I also contribute to the annual reporting for the ‘Scotland River Temperature Monitoring Network (SRTMN)’ and produce peer reviewed papers, reports and conference presentations. My most recent paper describes our national river temperature model which can simultaneously predict daily maximum river temperature and sensitivity to climate change for rivers across Scotland.
Why is what you do important?
MSS-FFL have been working for a many years on applied research questions that provide us with the knowledge base to create informed policy and management. Under environmental and climate change I believe this is even more important, allowing us to best manage and protect our rivers and fisheries. The national juvenile density model will allow the further development of assessment tools for salmon populations in Scotland.
What has your career path been – how did you get here?
I have always been interested in the environment and how we can protect it. In addition, I love learning and finding out new things, a career in science allows me to learn and discover every day. I have also been privileged to work with and learn from people from a range of different backgrounds and organisations throughout my career.
I completed a BSc Geography degree at the University of Birmingham specialising in hydrology, climate and environmental management. My undergraduate dissertation was focused on understanding how different water sources (e.g. glacial, groundwater, surface water) influenced river temperatures in the Taillon-Gabiétous catchment in the French Pyrenees. I further specialised in hydrology by completing an MSc at the University of Leeds entitled ‘Catchment dynamics and management.’ I remained interested in river temperatures and for my dissertation looked at the temperature dependence of in-stream respiration in the Ӧdenwinkelkees catchment in the Austrian Alps.
Next, I undertook a PhD with MSS-FFL and the University of Birmingham, funded by a NERC Open CASE studentship. My project focused on the development of novel monitoring and statistical modelling methods to understand and predict why river temperature varies at different locations and at different times. As part of this we designed and deployed the Scotland River Temperature Monitoring Network. I was particularly interested in this project because of the ‘real world’ application that meant that the research was going to be used in the management of Scotland’s rivers and fisheries. After my PhD I applied for the ‘Salmon Assessment Modeller’ post advertised at MSS-FFL and was thrilled that I was successful.
If you weren’t doing this, what do you think you would be doing instead?
I would (hopefully!) be a post-doctoral researcher at a university researching rivers under environmental and climate change (e.g. implications for thermal regime, water quality) and the consequences for fish populations. I would have endeavoured to maintain collaborative links with applied research organisations like MSS-FFL to ensure policy and management relevant scientific output.
What’s your favourite fishy fact?
I don’t have a fishy fact but I do have a temperature logger fact. A Gemini Tinytag datalogger (the loggers we use in SRTMN) can measure temperature every 15 minutes for 339 days and 17 hours before becoming full.
One fun fact about you
I love hillwalking, mountain biking and weightlifting.
Duration: 6-13 November 2017
Gear: Sub-surface passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) moorings.
- To retrieve a previously deployed series of moorings comprising acoustic release systems (eight subsurface acoustic release moorings) and the acoustic recording devices attached to them (eight C-POD and three Loggerhead broadband units). Nine moorings were deployed originally however, one of these (Soay) has already been recovered.
- To deploy a series of moorings comprising acoustic release systems (six subsurface acoustic release moorings) and the acoustic recording devices attached to them. Each mooring will have a C-POD and a Loggerhead broadband unit attached This west coast background noise and marine mammal monitoring deployment is part of the COMPASS project. Tables 1 and 2 (below) give the locations for recovery of the moorings deployed in August 2017 during survey 1817H as well as the locations for the further deployments to be completed during survey 1917A.
Alba na Mara will sail on the morning of 6 November and make for the first mooring position. The ultimate order in which the moorings are deployed will be dictated by the weather forecast and the likely shelter that can be sought along the west coast. Accurate position records will be kept detailing where the moorings are eventually placed as this may differ slightly from the planned position.
Marine renewable energy is an important component of the Scottish Government’s vision for the future and will help the government reach its climate change objectives.
In response to this, a three-year project, EcoWatt2050, was created to investigate how we can ensure that the benefits of future large scale tidal and wave energy developments can be maximised, whilst minimising the environmental impacts and ensuring that these meet the legal criteria established by European law.
The project was established through Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland (MASTS) and funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). It was led by Heriot-Watt University, in partnership with the Universities of Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Strathclyde, and the Highlands and Islands, Swansea University, the National Oceanography Centre (NOC), the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS) and Marine Scotland Science (MSS).
By 2050, the natural conditions in Scottish seas will have changed due to climate change and EcoWatt2050 aimed to consider these changes and compare them with the changes predicted due to large scale marine renewable energy. The research had been specifically designed to respond to questions:
- How can marine planning be used to lay the foundation for the sustainable development of very large scale arrays (developments) of marine renewable energy devices?
- What criteria should be used to determine the ecological limits to marine renewable energy extraction, and what are the implications for very large scale array characteristics?
- How can we differentiate the effects of climate change from energy extraction on the marine ecosystem?
- Are there ways in which marine renewables development may improve or exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change on marine ecosystems?
A number of areas around Scotland were identified, using a marine spatial planning process, as suitable for tidal and wave energy expansion. This process took into account the best available natural resource for renewable energy, as well as other users of the sea such as oil and gas, fishing and tourism. These identified areas that were used in the project modelling scenarios as the locations of large arrays.
Tidal energy extraction
Using a newly developed hydrodynamic model of Scottish Shelf Seas (the Scottish Shelf Model), changes to oceanographic conditions, caused by energy extraction at both national and local scales, were able to be predicted. Changes to tidal elevation, marine currents and ocean stratification patterns due to both climate change and the effect of large scale tidal arrays could also be simulated, although the tidal array scenarios that were modelled were hypothetical examples, and the arrays of tidal turbines that were used were larger than those being deployed today, but are likely to be common place in 2050.
Wave energy extraction
Hydrodynamic changes due to wave energy extraction was also modelled, in an area off of the west coast of Orkney, using two types of wave energy devices (constructed as large arrays). The modelling allowed factoring in changes to wave height, velocities at the surface and at the seabed, wave front power and also wave period and direction.
Both present and future climate conditions were also investigated in order to assess the relative impact of large scale wave energy extraction and climate change.
The key finding of the project was that overall impacts due to climate change for both the physical and ecological environment are an order of magnitude higher than for renewable energy arrays. The project summary booklet which provides an overview of all the research carried out is available for download from the MASTS website and the Marine Scotland Information project page for EcoWatt2050 will contains metadata for the project outputs and links to the data.
The EcoWatt2050 Consortium gratefully acknowledges financial support for this work from the EPSRC Grand Challenge II award (EPSRC Grant Ref: EP/K012851/1), and contributions from MSS and MASTS.
The post Maximising the benefits of future large scale tidal and wave energy developments appeared first on Marine Scotland.