Ecological consequences include the sustainability of populations, impacting energy flows through food webs and the size and age composition within populations, alteration to habitat structure, biodiversity or function.
Removal of target species that are features of conservation importance or sub-features of habitats of conservation importance at a commercial, artisanal or recreational scale.
Fishing or collection of marine plants and animals, primarily fisheries & shellfisheries but also seaweed harvesting, collection of broodstock or seed/spat. Includes smaller scale harvesting, or species collection, angling and scientific sampling.
This pressure addresses only the ecological effects of removal of species and not the effects of the removal process on the species, community or habitat itself e.g. excludes physical effects of fishing gear on sea bed communities - these are addressed by the "abrasion" pressures. Excludes removal of wild seed for shellfish culture.