Sub-surface abrasion/penetration

Abrasion damage involving some degree of physical penetration to the seabed or disturbance of habitats or species below the surface of the seabed. Penetration and damage to the soft rock substrata are considered, however, penetration into hard bedrock is deemed unlikely.

Damage to species or habitats below the surface of the seabed.
This pressure is associated with activities such as anchoring, certain fishing activities, (e.g. scallop dredging, beam trawling), compression of sediment (e.g. jack-up barges & vehicles), taking of sediment/geological cores, cone penetration tests, cable burial (ploughing or jetting), propeller wash from vessels.
1. OSPAR combines subsurface and surface abrasion/penetration into one single pressure. 2. Loss, removal or modification of the substratum is not included within this pressure (see the physical loss pressures).