Surface abrasion

Abrasion damage at the surface of the substratum in sedimentary or rocky habitats e.g. epiflora and epifauna.

Damage to species or habitats living on the seabed. Damage to surface features (e.g. species and physical structures within the habitat).
Recreational access and trampling (inc. climbing) by human or livestock, vehicular access, moorings (ropes, chains), fishing gear such as pots or creels and demersal towed gear, cables and chains associated with fixed gears, objects placed on the seabed such as the legs of jack-up barges, and harvesting of seaweeds or other species (trampling).
1. OSPAR combines subsurface and surface abrasion/penetration into one single pressure. 2. Loss, removal or modification of the substratum is not included within this pressure (see the physical loss pressures).