Surface/Sub-surface abrasion/penetration

This is a composite of the separate terms Surface abrasion/penetration and Sub-surface abrasion/penetration. It includes both
• abrasion damage at the surface of the substratum in sedimentary or rocky habitats e.g. epiflora and epifauna
• abrasion damage involving some degree of physical penetration to the seabed or disturbance of habitats or species below the surface of the seabed. Penetration and damage to the soft rock substrata are considered, however, penetration into hard bedrock is deemed unlikely.

Surface abrasion - Damage to species or habitats living on the seabed. Damage to surface features (e.g. species and physical structures within the habitat). Sub-surface abrasion - Damage to species or habitats below the surface of the seabed.
Surface abrasion - Recreational access and trampling (inc. climbing) by human or livestock, vehicular access, moorings (ropes, chains), fishing gear such as pots or creels and demersal towed gear, cables and chains associated with fixed gears, objects placed on the seabed such as the legs of jack-up barges, and harvesting of seaweeds or other species (trampling). Sub-surface abrasion – This pressure is associated with activities such as anchoring, certain fishing activities, (e.g. scallop dredging, beam trawling), compression of sediment (e.g. jack-up barges & vehicles), taking of sediment/geological cores, cone penetration tests, cable burial (ploughing or jetting), propeller wash from vessels.
1. OSPAR combines subsurface and surface abrasion/penetration into one single pressure. 2. Loss, removal or modification of the substratum is not included within this pressure (see the physical loss pressures).