Variability and profiles of lipophilic toxins in bivalves from Great Britain during five and a half years of monitoring: Okadaic acid, dinophysis toxins and pectenotoxins
|Title||Variability and profiles of lipophilic toxins in bivalves from Great Britain during five and a half years of monitoring: Okadaic acid, dinophysis toxins and pectenotoxins|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Dhanji-Rapkova, M, O’Neill, A, Maskrey, BH, Coates, L, Alves, MTeixeira, Kelly, RJ, Hatfield, RG, Rowland-Pilgrim, SJ, Lewis, AM, Algoet, M, Turner, AD|
|Pagination||66 - 80|
|Keywords||Dinophysis toxins, Great Britain, LC–MS/MS, Lipophilic toxin profiles, Okadaic acid, Pectenotoxins|
Official control biotoxin testing of bivalve molluscs from Great Britain has been conducted by Cefas for over a decade. Reflecting the changes in legislation, bioassays were gradually replaced by analytical methods, firstly for analysis of Paralytic shellfish toxins, followed by introduction of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LCMS/MS) method for lipophilic toxins (LTs) in 2011. Twelve compounds, representing three main groups of regulated lipophilic toxins, as well as two non-regulated cyclic imines were examined in over 20,500 samples collected between July 2011 and December 2016. The toxins belonging to Okadaic acid (OA) group toxins were the most prevalent and were quantified in 23% of samples, predominantly from Scotland. The temporal pattern of OA group occurrences remained similar each year, peaking in summer months and tailing off during autumn and winter, however their abundance and magnitude varied between years significantly, with concentrations reaching up to 4993 μg OA eq./kg.
Three toxin profiles were identified, reflecting the relative contribution of the two main toxins, OA and dinophysis toxin-2 (DTX2). Dinophysis toxin-1 (DTX1) was less common and was never detected in samples with high proportions of DTX2. Inter-annual changes in profiles were observed within certain regions, with the most notable being an increase of DTX2 occurrences in north-west Scotland and England in the last three years of monitoring. In addition, seasonal changes of profiles were identified when OA, the dominant toxin in early summer, was replaced by higher proportions of DTX2 in late summer and autumn. The profile distribution possibly reflected the availability of individual Dinophysis species as a food source for shellfish, however persistence of DTX2 during autumn and winter in mussels might have also been attributed to their physiology. Mussels were the only species with higher average proportions of non-esterified toxins, while Pacific oysters, cockles, surf clams, razors and queen scallops contained almost exclusively ester forms. In addition, a temporal change in proportion of OA and DTX2 free form was observed in mussels. Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) was quantified only on rare occasions.
|Short Title||Harmful Algae|