Any damage, loss or removal of species through accidental or incidental catch (or by-catch) associated with fishing, harvesting and extraction activities, including extraction of substrate or water. Also includes accidental entanglement in ropes or lines associate with various activities.
Removal of non-target species (including lethal)
Accidental or incidental removal of features through pursuit of a target fishery, or harvesting or other extractive activity (commercial, recreational or artisanal scale), including through accidental entanglement with nets or ropes e.g. aquaculture nets, mooring lines or creels.
Most commonly referring to by-catch from commercial fisheries, but can also apply to recreational and artisanal fisheries or collection of fish, shellfish or seaweed. Also relevant to incidental loss of species during removal of dredged material, aggregate or water (e.g. for power station cooling). Non-target species can be mobile, demersal or infaunal. Also applies to lethal entanglement of fish, mammals or birds, not just in active fishing gear, but also ghost (lost) gear, moorings or anti-predator nets, for example.
The physical effects of fishing gear on sea bed communities are not included, as are addressed by the abrasion pressure, and entanglement from litter or 'ghost fishing' from lost fishing nets/creels are considered under the litter pressure.